These are a series of donut studies. Industrial pipe elbows are welded into donut shapes. Helical lines of varying ‘rises’ are laid out and cut offset from each around the donuts. This video shows some of that process. I thought it would be the simplest of exercises right? Simple pipe elbows 90 degrees. The amount of bending and the force required to align the parts was astounding. The steel pipes were fairly thick at 5/16″ and able to withstand all the stresses. A thinner gauge tube can deform as I unfortunately learned later. Thank you to all at Miller’s Eureka Welding in Chicago!